Should Barotseland Take Part In Zambia's Independence Jubilee Celebration? - Saleya Kwalombota

  The term 'Independence Day' simply refers to the day when a nation was declared independent from its colonialists. 24th October, 1964 was a joyous and historic day for Zambia, when the republic was born through the union of British colony of Northern Rhodesia and a British protectorate of Barotseland through the BA64 international treaty.  With the population of less than five million people, the country burst into celebrations as the colony flag was being lowered and the Zambian national fl...


Let Us Be Wary Of Traitors amongst Barotseland Activists As Zambia Runs Out Of Ideas to Halt Our Independence.

Colonialism, in the traditional sense, ended as European countries started fighting over colonies (the World Wars) and in effect, weakened each other in the process.  Colonized people, the world over, saw their chance to break free as they realized that their masters or colonizers are not as mightier as they claimed. If it was all about being mightier, Britain could not have suctioned independence of Zambia in that case. ZAMBIA SHOULD RESPECT THE LAW OF NATIONS THAN CONCEPT OF "MIGHTIER&...


Customs of Barotseland by Ben Taulo Masule

Language Silozi is the National language while English remains as the official language. Marriage and Family Long marriage engagements are common, so is living together before or instead of marriage. Only civil marriages are legal, but many couples also have a religious ceremony. The average Barotzish family has two children or more. Both parents often work outside the home. At home, they may share some household duties, but women are still generally considered responsible for many of them...


PF Has Not Delivered on Election Promises such as Restoration of the Barotseland Agreement 1964 – Sacika

Former Secretary to the Cabinet Sketchley Sacika says the Patriotic Front has not delivered on its major campaign promises in their three years of being in power. Sacika warned that the PF risk losing power if they did not address the issue of the major campaign promises they made to the Zambian people. He said that among the highly publicized campaign issues was the constitution making process and the restoration of the Barotseland Agreement. “Mr Sata was reported in the papers and the med...


From Zambian prison over Barotseland, Nayoto Mwenda charges that there is No Jubilee for Zambia because the union between Barotseland and Northern Rhodesia already broke

Left: Sir Mwanawina III, Litunga of Barotseland and Kenneth Kaunda at the dawn of Zambia's Independence. Right: Sir Mwanawina III and Queen Victoria of UK at the latter's visit to Barotseland in 1960 There is no jubilee for Zambia because both Barotseland kingdom and Northern Rhodesia which formed the failed 'unitary' state of Zambia have reverted to their original statuses. Therefore, let the Zambian government live up to reality instead of deceiving Zambians that there will be celebrating ...


Visiting Barotseland Kingdom as a Tourist by Ben Taulo Masule

Picture: Tiger Fishing in Barotseland – courtesy of Being a tourist is awesome. So awesome that the World Tourism Organization WTO has set an annual day of observance to highlight tourism's social, cultural, political and economic value. In honor of World Tourism Day, celebrated September 27, we've compiled 20 reasons it's great to be a camera-toting out-of-toner with a sudden need to stand in line for a Renaissance art museum. What are your favorite things about bein...


'Hypocritical' Zambia to officially commemorate ‘Unity’ through Kaunda’s One Party State 1972 Choma Declaration but continue to ‘Criminalize’ the Barotseland Agreement 1964

The Zambian government will this year hold commemorations for the 1972 Choma Declaration which effectively turned Zambia into a one party dictatorship. The Zambia News and Information Service (ZANIS) reports that preparations are under way for the commemoration which will be held at the site where Kenneth Kaunda and Harry Mwanga Nkumbula signed the declaration. The Zambian government says the 1972 Choma declaration was a symbol of peace and unity hence giving it space in the history of the co...


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New Comment Policy

Latest Comments

  • its Over 01.10.2014 14:24
    in to the very essence of the Zambian nation. Zambia can not claim to exist without significant mention of the Lozi.


  • its Over 01.10.2014 14:22
    events and times change things just like there was no Barotseland 600 years ago 50 years after Zambia's creation, the Lozis have ...


  • its Over 01.10.2014 14:08
    Like the failed case of Scotland and Quebec, barotseland can not stand alone and will be prosperous if it stays with Zambia The ...


  • its Over 01.10.2014 14:01
    Hope Mwenda is spending his time in prison reflecting on his conduct and the none cause that he and his fellow misguided youths ...


  • Ackson Lubinda 25.09.2014 07:35
    Long live Malozi komuinzi, bulozi ki bwa luna


  • Kabisoi 25.09.2014 05:11
    Well spoken Sir. We heard of the plans by these 'Zambians' to spy on our leaders' whereabouts and we know that they are also trying ...


  • Saleya Kwalombota 24.09.2014 16:30
    Hon. Nayoto I personal admire your courage and really you are heroic. One day will sing our song of our land and raise our flag of ...


  • Kabisoi 23.09.2014 13:53
    Malozi komuliten'i kaufela never give in to these acts of terrorism by Zambia. Enough is enough. Being a Judas will just make you end ...


  • Kabisoi 22.09.2014 06:16
    Kiniiti shangwe. forward ever, backward never. Mulozi a kisilukenge kuli a zamaye 'pindingi kukuta pindingi!' as the Lozi adage ...


  • Kabisoi 19.09.2014 10:18
    Well, that was democracy indeed at work; clean and void of harassments and imprisonments. Our case is different anyway because ...


  • Liseli Kalaluka 19.09.2014 10:11
    Atleast the Scotts have peacefully chosen their own destiny of staying in union with Britain. Thrilling moments! However, Barotseland ...


  • wamu 19.09.2014 07:45
    The people have spoken.Mr. Alex Salmond is a brave man and he has done his part. A big lesson is people should not loose sight over ...


  • Luseso Mutimbwa 17.09.2014 13:19
    This should have given ba Zambia a lesson; kakuli babanani ngana dont fight but they do reason, after ya Scotland, next will be ...


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Every Mondays and Fridays at 17:00hrs to 17:15hrs, let’s commit Barotseland in prayer. The Lozis in the Army and police working with our foes, you can say your prayers silently in your hearts. God has already answered our prayer so we need to thank him as much as we can.

Foundation Document
Constitution of Barotseland






Knowing that: Barotseland is a nation that has been in existence for over five (5) centuries;
Acknowledging that: Barotseland was a British Protectorate that was not conquered;
Considering that: Barotseland is currently under the subjugation of another country;
Appreciating: the principle of equal rights and self- determination of peoples;
Being aware: that all armed action or repressive measures of all kinds directed against dependent peoples shall cease in order to enable them to exercise their right to complete independence and integrity of their National territory as per UN resolution 1514(XV);
And realizing that: Nations have inalienable right to uphold, protect and defend their sovereignty’s.

We the People of Barotseland as a Nation find it human to exercise our right to Self- Rule, guard our nation and exercise sovereignty; and do here by adopt this order as part of the laws of the Kingdom of Barotseland during transition.



article 1.1 Re-establishment of a Kingdom

(i) Barotseland is hereby restored as a Sovereign, Constitutional Monarchy State, governed according to the principles of justice, human rights and democracy.

(ii) The people are supreme, and shall exercise power in accordance with Institutions legitimately and democratically established and through a referendum when need arises.

(iii) The main bodies of the state shall be the Executive, Legislature and Judiciary.

article 1.2 Identification of the territory and its frontiers

The National territory of the Kingdom of Barotseland in the meantime shall consist of the whole territory of Barotseland as it were from 1900 to 1947, Without taking areas that were Regarded as her subject or dependent territories into consideration; that is its Eastern boundaries shall stretch from Itezhi-Tezhi to the conf1uence of river Chiababi with Zambezi (longitude 26 degrees East) and Northern boundaries shall stretch from the confluence of Lufupa river with river Kafue, Westwards to the Lungwebungu river, (longitude 22 degrees East) The boundary on the west shall start from Lungwebungu river Latitude 13 degrees 28 minutes South) then Southward to Cuando river, down to the confluence of Cuando with river Luiana extending to Katima Mulilo Rapids, running along the Zambezi, Eastward to its confluence with river Chiababi (longitude 26 degrees East). But later to be re-defined.

article 1.3 Symbols of Nationhood

(i) Barotseland shall retain its National Anthem

(ii) Barotseland shall continue using her National language {Lingua France}

  1. The Kingdom shall have a National Flag and a Coat of Arms

  2. The Kingdom shall have its own National Seal.


article 2.1 Citizenship

(i) A person who Uluyi Empire or Barotseland Protectorate was a native country of his forefathers shall become a Citizen of Barotseland after date--8th --Month--SEPTEMBER--year--2011--

(ii) Any person born in Royal Barotseland or former illegally occupied territory proclaimed Western Province by the Zambian Government, shall be a citizen of Barotseland, provided the parents of such a person were or are nationals of Barotseland in accordance with Sub-Section (2.1(i))

(iii) Any person born outside the Kingdom of Barotseland or the former Proclaimed Western Province by Zambia shall be a citizen of Barotseland Kingdom, provided confirmation is made from both the headmen of the paternal and maternal side to the effect that both or one of the parents of the claimant were Barotzish nationals by descent.

(iv) Any person who, one of his or her parents is not a Barotzish national by descent, shall become a citizen by application and, such a person shall be required to renounce the nationality of the other parent.

(v) Any person born in Barotseland Kingdom or former proclaimed Western province, whose parents are not Barotzish nationals by descent shall be deemed as an alien or a foreigner; and such a person shall only become a citizen after making application, in accordance with the Provisions made by the Barotzish Parliament; nonetheless, no person shall qualify for citizenship by application if he or she is below the age of 21 years.

(vi) An immigrant married to a Barotzish national shall apply for citizenship in accordance with the Provisions made by Parliament; however, no person shall be eligible for application if he has not resided or lived in Barotseland for more than 5 years.

(vii) Any person whose parents have become citizens by application shall automatically become a citizen by birth, and registration.

(viii) In same cases Persons from some Specific nationalities (list to be published yearly) shall be eligible for Barotzish citizenship upon renunciation of the status and citizenry of their respective status or nations.

(ix) Citizenship shall be lost by people who declare or renounce their Barotzish citizenry by voluntarily signing declaration to that effect or by legislation, providing for the loss by Barotzish nationals who have acquired citizenship of other country.

(x) No dual citizenship shall ever be allowed.


article 3.1 Revocation of foreign authority

(i) Where under any ordinance, Act or Law in force in the Barotseland territory, any power, jurisdiction or authority is at the commencement of this order vested in the President of Zambia, such power, jurisdiction or authority shall absolutely terminate on the 8th day. September 2011 restoration.

(ii) No title of President or Paramount Chief shall be recognised as official in Barotseland Kingdom.

article 3.2 Powers of president and other officers

(i) Where under any proclamation or Law in force in the Barotseland territory, any power, jurisdiction or authority is at the commencement of this order exercised by the President, similar or analogous power, jurisdiction or authority shall be exercised by the Administrator General during transition.

(ii) Where under any Act or Law in force in Barotseland territory, any power, jurisdiction or authority is at the commencement of this order exercised by an officer other than the President, such power, jurisdiction or authority shall continue to be exercised by such officer until the Provision shall lawfully be made with regard there to. Nonetheless this Provision does not apply to Political posts or appointment.

article 3.3 Public officers

(i) All persons in public service within the illegally occupied territory named Western Province by Zambians at the commencement of this order shall become public officers in the Royal Barotseland and shall continue in full enjoyment of their existing rights.


article 4.1 Head of State

(i) The “Ngocana Molyetu” - King - shall forever be the Head of State.

article 4.2 Powers reserved to the Ngocana and his heirs

(i) The Ngocana is the repository of all land, and it is through him that one may or can indissolubly acquire land in Barotseland according to custom.

(ii) The Ngocana and his Privy Council may be consulted from time to time in case there is something they consider important for the smooth running of the country.


article 5.1 The Constituent Assembly

(i) To uphold and respect the will of the people, the Constituent Assembly mandated by the majority shall be instituted.

(ii) The Constituent Assembly shall be converted into Parliament and shall constitute the first National Assembly of the Royal Barotseland during transition; and shall be empowered to make laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers and other powers vested in the Government of Barotseland or any department or officers thereof.

(iii) The Constituent Assembly shall be empowered to:-

(a) Fix the standard of weights and measures, coin money and regulate the value thereof.

(b) To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and legitimate coins or currency of the Kingdom of Barotseland.

(c) Agree to the ratification of or accession to International Agreements.

(d) Initiate or approve referendum on matters of National concern.

(e) Approve National budgets.


article 6.1 The Administrator General

(i) The Administrator General shall be elected by the Nationalists prior to the election of the Prime Minister

(ii) Before the Administrator General enters on the execution of his office he/she shall take the oath or affirmation prescribed for the purpose.

(iii) On the day of restoration, the Judge designate or the Commissioner for Oath shall administer to the Administrator General the oath prescribed in the Appendix.

article 6.2 Powers of Administrator General

(i) Upon assuming office the Administrator General shall have all the powers, functions and duties of the executive and shall enjoy the rights and immunities from civil suit save where the civil proceedings pertain to an act done in his or her official capacity

(ii) The Administrator General shall appoint Ambassadors, High Commissioners, Public Ministers, Consuls, and Judges of Supreme Court and shall receive commissioned officers and ambassadors during transition.

(iii) The Administrator General shall be the Commander in Chief of the Army in Barotseland during transition.

(iv) The Administrator General shall in execution of his duties be obliged to act in consultation with his Cabinet and the Ngocana’s Privy Council.

article 6.3 Removal from office

(i) The Administrator General, Vice Administrator and all Civil Officers of Barotseland shall be removed from office on impeachment for conviction of Treason, bribery, Corruption or other high crimes respectively

(ii) No person except a natural born citizen of Barotseland at the time of adoption of this order shall be eligible to the office of Administrator General; and to qualify she or he must attain the age of 35 years.

article 6.4 The Minyolui

(a) The Minyolui (Lord Chancellor) shall be the leader of the Privy Council and

(b) He shall be elected by the Barotse National Council.

(c) The post of the Lord Chancellor shall forever belong to the commoners.


article 7.1 The Government

(i) The Administrator General shall be the Head of Government of Royal Barotseland and exclusive powers shall vest in him and his Cabinet during transition,

(ii) The executive, the judicial and other officers are bound by oath or affirmation to support this order and thereafter the Constitution of the Kingdom of Barotseland,

(iii) The Administrator shall administer to the First Lord Judge of Barotseland the Oath set out in the Appendix.

article 7.2 Role of Government

(i) The Government shall be empowered to lay and collect Taxes, duties, imports and excise, as well as provide for the common good and defence and general welfare of the Kingdom of Barotseland,

(ii) To borrow money on the credit of Barotseland,

(iii) Government shall be empowered to regulate commerce with foreign Nations, and responsible to invite and deal with foreign investors.


article 8.1 Measuring value of goods and services (currency)

(i) Subject to this order, measuring the value of goods and services shall be done in MUPU and NDO (M N) and the notes and coins, as well as denominations thereof shall be released in the Barotseland Gazette at an appropriate time as shall be approved by National Assembly,

(ii) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary no any other metal save gold and silver coins shall be legal tender in remitting bills of credit and payment of debts

(iii) No person or organization may enter into contract to coin money or produce Bank notes other than the Barotzish Government.

article 8.2 sovereign ownership of natural resources

Land, water, natural resources (animate and Inanimate) within Barotseland, shall forever belong to the Nation and People of Barotseland and shall be utilized to economic development of the country.


article 9.1 The Central Bank of Barotseland

(i) The Barotse Native Bank that was looted by the Zambia Government shall be re-established by Act of the Constituent Assembly as the Central Bank of Barotseland which shall be responsible for the control of currency and financial institutions and for the implementation of Government monetary policy.

(ii) The Governing Board of the central Bank shall consist of such members as shall be prescribed by Constituent Assembly.

(iii) No money shall be drawn from the Treasury of the Kingdom of Barotseland but in consequence of appropriation made by law.

(iv) Net produce of all duties and imports or exports by state or income on investments in the country, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the Kingdom of Barotseland.


article 10.1 Re-establishment of the Police Services

(i) The Barotse Native Police of 23rd May 1900 shall be re-instituted as the Royal Barotseland Police on the day of restoration.

(ii) The Police shall have powers and duties to secure internal security of Barotseland and maintain law and order.

article 10.2 The General Police Commander

(i) There shall be a General Police Commander who shall be appointed by Administrator General.

article 10.3 Establishment of the Defence Forces

(i) There shall be a Royal Barotseland Defence Forces, which shall be established by the Constituent Assembly with powers and duties to defend the National Sovereignty of the Kingdom of Barotseland.

(ii) The Administrator General shall be the Commander in Chief during transition.

article 10.4 The Commander of the Defence Forces

There will be a Commander of the Defence Force who shall be appointed by the Administrator General after consultation with the National Assembly.


article 11.1 Legal proceedings

(i) Every suit, action, complaint, matter or thing which shall be pending in any Court within the so called Western Province at the commencement of this order may be preceded within such Courts in like manner as if this order had not been passed; but that relies on the nature of the offense.

(ii) The Supreme Court shall be established that shall have the same jurisdiction to hear and determine appeals from Courts in Barotseland as was previously vested in the appellate division of the Supreme Court of Zambia.

(iii) There shall be as many judges of High Court as may from time to time be required.

(iv) Every Judge shall be appointed by letters patent under Public seal of the country by Administrator General and shall hold office during Administrator's pleasure.

(v) Courts Subordinate to the High Court; and Courts of Special jurisdiction may be constituted by or under the provisions of any ordinance as occasion requires.

(vi) The trial of all crimes except in case of impeachment shall be by Jury and such trial shall be held in the state where crimes shall have been committed.

(vii) In civil cases every Court shall be guided by Native Law so far as it is applicable and is not repugnant to natural justice or morality. In all other respects the court shall follow as far as possible the procedure observed internationally in criminal or similar cases.

article 11.2 Appeal to Privy Council

(i) When the amount or value or penalty is maximum in a civil matter, an appeal shall lie to the Judicial Committee of his Magnificence Ngocana’s Privy Council from a Judgment of the Royal Barotseland Court of appeal.

(ii) The Ngocana’s Privy Council shall be the Highest Court of appeal where land tribunal and disputes are concerned. Appeal shall lie to it from the Barotseland High Court.


article 12.1 protection of human rights

(i) Immigrant workers who are not Barotzish Nationals and their families shall have right to protection and assistance in the territory during transition period

(ii) Amnesty Period for repatriation shall be 8 months.

  1. All people in Barotseland shall enjoy civil, political, social and cultural rights without interference. Save where limitations provides in accordance with law.


article 13.1 Land tenure

(i) Land shall be held by Royal Magnificence the Ngocana in council on behalf of the people and in traditional areas; Chiefs shall be perceived to hold land on behalf of the people of Barotseland in all Provinces

(ii) Land residential and trading purposes may be provided by chiefs and granted by the Local Administration Authority.

(iii) No land shall ever be sold or purchased as a matter of Policy.


article 14.1 The Law in force on the day of restoration

(i) Subject to this order, all laws of Zambia which were in force immediately before the day of restoration shall be repealed and declared invalid and unconstitutional; hence, the state shall be guided by common law of Barotseland until the adoption of the Constitution.

(ii) Any power vested by such laws in the Government in any Minister of the Republic of Zambia shall be deemed to vest in the Government of Royal Barotseland or corresponding officer of the Barotzish Government.

For the purpose of this part, the Government of the Republic of Zambia shall be deemed to include the administration of the deputy Minister and District Administrator appointed by the Government of Zambia to administer Barotseland.


article 15.1 Obligation

(i) No debts contracted or engagement entered into before the adoption of this order shall be valid against Barotseland after restoration.

(ii) This order and laws of Royal Barotseland which shall be made there after shall form part of the laws of the land; and all treaties made or which shall be made under the authority of Barotzish Government shall be binding upon the Nation.


article 16.1 Customary law and law of antiquity

  1. The Customary Laws in force, in Barotseland can never be abolished by anybody, hence these shall remain valid so long they are not inconsistent with morality

  2. Any Customary or traditional transgression by the Lord Prince shall be heard in tribunal constituting the 6 Domains of the Lingambela of Barotseland, the same applies to any transgression by the Lord Chancellor (Sope).

  3. No organ shall interfere with government institutions. A clear-cut distinction between politics or party organs and civil service is to be maintained.

article 16.2 International law

  1. During transition, the General rules of public safety, International law and Agreements binding upon civilized Nations shall be upheld by Government of Barotseland.


article 17.1 language policy

  1. For security reasons, and to enable state control illegal immigrants and influx of aliens there shall be one National language.

  2. A national language brings strong spirit of Nationalism and unity and easy communication.

  3. A part from a National language, 3 other languages of International communication that helps people acquire scientific knowledge and technical know-how, shall be allowed or approved to form part of school curriculum.


article 18.1 commencement-enter into force

  1. This order shall enter into force o the day of Restoration/Declaration

  2. Transition period shall not exceed 3 years; and at the end of it election to put in new Government shall take place.

  3. All the Ngocana's officers, civil, military and all other inhabitants of the territory are hereby required and obliged to be obedient, aiding and assisting into the new Barotzish Administration.


0 #1 Makweti 2012-08-16 06:15
The part stating that no Dual citizenship whatsoever will be entertained in Barotseland is Myopic,Archaic and Selfish thinking.
However,i take it that these are current dreams of the persons or people who have taken it upon themselves to garner a so-called constitution without approved channels.
Whilst we fight for our land,be ready for a more ferocious fight from progressive people like me as we can not afford to lose the benefits of dual citizenship which is espoused by countries like Australia,Brita in,Canada,South Africa,Nigeria, Ghana to name but a few.
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+1 #2 mubita 2012-08-16 13:06
Since it is just some transitional constitution, i think am ok with it as all the necessary changes will be made after the transitional period has ellapsed-nji cwani bo Makweti?
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+1 #3 mubita 2012-08-16 13:07
its just some tempral constitutional just to assist cross the bridge-Tukongot e wa mwana a'muka
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0 #4 seba yeta 2012-08-16 14:09
#2 Bo Mubita you are correct. I can imagine how difficult to try to consult with everybody before our independence. Of course in a free independent Barotseland it will be possible to have a wider consultation and in put from every one to come up with a more comprehensive constitution. This should help us cross over into independence
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0 #5 Lilato 2012-08-16 17:01
I am sure this is a Temperal thing once we cross the Bridge, It shall be done in a proper way. On the other hand I want to agree with bo Makweti in that I would also support dual ctizenship. This is the only way Barotseland will move forward. Remember that we have to start everything from almost scruch and the most experienced of Barotseland citizens are actually in the diaspora, these will be a major source of funding for the new Barotseland if we disciminate against these then we are just repeating exactly what the lusaka government has been doing. No one is more Barotzish than the other whether you are in Mongu or UK lubana ba poho yensu kaufela. Lets keep debating thats what democracy is all about.
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0 #6 Makweti 2012-08-17 10:31
It is always difficult to make changes to a constitution when already in power kono i agree that something must be put in place prior to a proper constitution.
Like someone narrated on FB we need to visit our people in Lukona,Imusho,N angili etc to effectively participate in the process otherwise we risk collecting views only from those with Internet and other technological advantage.
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-3 #7 Bulozinahayaluna 2012-08-17 19:29
With due respect to linyungandambo and all barotse activists, this constitution is a hushed up thing and in its current form is a danger to barotseland, either in transition or permanent.there are many stakeholders in barotseland and only one group came up with this constitution and have already appointed an admnstrator general. That's wrong. The ngambela has already mentioned that preparations are underway for barotseland to prepare her own constitution. That constitution is not this one. Please this is a good try, but it is an insult to take the people of barotseland for granted by putting a constitution for them without out consulting them. The constitution of barotseland is coming, and it will take time for people to submit and finally make it into a law. By the way the admnstrator general can never be the commander in chief in barotseland. That is the role of a head of state. Both the prime minster and ministers, chief justice and constitutional officers shall be sworn in by the Litunga who is head of state. There is no way we can thrust power in an administrator general or prime minister without guidelines on how he,she will be watched.again, we say, barotseland has a governnance system, that we refuse to throw down the gutter. Those who would want to venture into barotseland politics must know that their role will be minimum and second to the that of the Litunga, chiefs and indunas, who are custodians of barotse culture and life. And lets not argue about it
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-3 #8 Maurice Pelekelo 2012-08-19 22:37
I agree with the views of the author above. If this "Barotseland transitional constitution" is a Linyungandambo product, then in noway can it be said to be Barotseland's transitional constitution. It is simply a suggestion from our activist group on how our constitution should look like, and it should be regarded as such - a suggestion. I'm aware that this document posted on this website as our country's transitional constitution existed as far back as february 2012 on Barotseland.inf o, long before BNC's declaration for self-determination.

This brings to the fore that there's no consensus in it. To me it appears to be a hurried imposition, which lacks authenticity, legitimacy and authority. At no time since the Martch 27 declaration did we hear that Linyungandambo have been designated the official voice for Barotseland, neither have we been told that it is Linyungandambo who are going to form Barotseland's interim government. But how come an Administrator General has been appointed? Who nominated Mr. Afumba Mombotwa (Linyungandambo National Chairman) to that portifolio? Was that decision made at the BNC? If not then, it is wrong even for the editors of this publication to make us believe that we have a transitional constitution in place when they know that it is only a suggestion from one of our activist movements.

I stand to be corrected. But I think the Ngambela is the official voice for Barotseland. And if the Ngambela has not told us that an administrator general, who is to be the commander-in-ch ief of the armed forces in transition (at least according to Linyungandambo suggested constitution), then any communication that does not come through the office of the Ngambela, or that does not come in the name of BNC, is to be regarded as an opinion, to which every person is entitled to.

All our activist movements: BFM, Linyungandambo, MOREBA, BNYL and all the citizens of Barotseland are free to make suggestions, submissions and proposals regarding the governance sytem of Barotseland, but no one person or grouping will assume the know-it-all role. In my first comment to the legal corner I urged all our activist organisations to speak one voice, to engage in consultation and work together for a common purpose. I said it and I will still say it again: No one orgganisation should think they are the trendsetters and others should just follow the agenda they have set.

Halusebezeni hamoho. We only have one enemy - that should be all of us's preoccupation.

Maurice Pelekelo
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+3 #9 Jacob M. Mashwelo 2012-08-23 06:34
The constitution initially supposed to define three major things: 1. Define a territory, 2. Define a citizen, and 3. Define the national language. All these three main issues are covered in this transitional constitution and hence i completely have no problem to recommend it for approval. Then after elections the member of parliament and the general populous will improve this one to come up with a permanent one. At this stage it is practically impossible to involve everyone in making it, we are still at war, and time will come when everyone will make a party in it. Thanks to Linyungandambo for the wonderful job you have done, many people are still politicking but you busy doing the right thing, and if everyone thought like yourselves i think by now we would have already secured our nation.
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+3 #10 Mutimbwa Luseso 2012-08-23 06:52
This time we have to be very careful, i think bo Maurice and Naha ya luna are taking a different view, lets look at what is deficient at the document not just hate the author. I agree nibo Mashwelo. We are still under bondage and now we are looking for ways to free ourselves from this bondage. To me this thinking is very strategic it takes us to the right direction, cause we moving towards qualifying to be a state and this one of the requirements. Let us patch it up where it is deficient and adopt it. A comprehensive one will be written after elections. This is purely temporal.

What is have miised out are the powers of the Litunga, Lord chancellor and his council. Most of the important things are there, lets be supportive to each other.

I really thank ba Barotse Post for bringing up a paper that talks about issues surrounding Barotseland, atleast even us here in Caprivi we are being updated of what is happening that side.

We have been receiving literature for Linyungandambo here, those people are speaking sense and its unfortunate to find that you don't see them to be assets, they have been fighting for a long time, and they informed people even in difficult times, but they didn't fear to educate the people, now when all seems achievable then you condemn them, lets be supportive to each other. Us Caprivians want you to be independent.
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+1 #11 The Online Editor 2012-08-23 10:08
Bo Mutimbwa Luseso,
Thank you for your kind compliments. We will do our best to cover all that make news about and around Barotseland.

On the powers of the Litunga, please, refer to the Transitional Constitutional document which states:

article 4.1 Head of State

(i) The “Ngocana Molyetu” - King - shall forever be the Head of State.

article 4.2 Powers reserved to the Ngocana and his heirs

(i) The Ngocana is the repository of all land, and it is through him that one may or can indissolubly acquire land in Barotseland according to custom.

(ii) The Ngocana and his Privy Council may be consulted from time to time in case there is something they consider important for the smooth running of the country.
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+1 #12 Mutimbwa Luseso 2012-08-23 15:19
I completely agree with the person, group that wrote this constitution, because it has the elements that make a constitution, why wasting time on things that are straight forward.

If i was given chance to elect someone to choose i would quickly pick on linyungandambo to form the government, because they are communicating sense to the general public. Where are other activists groups why don't they educate the people as well? Rt. Hon. Afumba please just go ahead to form the government. Some people now are thinking the Litunga has power, but power is in the people, so let the people form government and now the Litunga will have power, now after elections the Litunga will ask the majority in the house of commons to form government.
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0 #13 Kalaluka Mwiya Jr 2012-10-28 20:50
Ye ikaluzusa mwamanyando yolunani. Musike mwalwaha n'gaka inge musika fola.
Musike mwailwanisa muli nosi, you are encouraging the enermies as well as imposters hau king hape?
Constitution ye izwelipi kona luka bona zeo zo mulila pili.
Lets move on and out of this bondage, no turning back and may God bless Barotseland always.
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